10-1 Discussion: Seizures – RESPONSES ONLY!

TOPIC: Describe one type of seizure common in childhood or adolescence, focusing on possible causes, how the seizure manifests, and possible treatments. How could uncontrolled seizures negatively affect development? What are the risks and benefits of the various treatments for the seizure you selected? When responding to your peers, think about any reservations you would have if your child were presented with the various treatment options for a seizure disorder.

I’VE ALREADY COMPLETED THE INITIAL RESPONSE. PLEASE ONLY DO A POSITIVE RESPONSE TO THE FOLLOWING TWO STUDENTS REGARDING THIS SAME TOPIC. MINIMUM OF 150 WORDS FOR EACH RESPONSE.


STUDENT ONE:

There are many different types of seizures that impact children and adolescents. One common kind of seizure in childhood are febrile seizures. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes (NINDS), febrile seizures (FS) are seizures or convulsions that happen in young children between the age of 6 months-5 years old. This kind of attack is sparked by fevers and may go along with familiar childhood illnesses such as a cold, the flu, or an ear infection. According to Assogba et al., (2015), febrile seizures occur in 2–7% of individuals before age 5 years. The condition of febrile seizures is characterized as seizures connected with fever in the absence of central nervous system (CNS) infection or acute electrolyte imbalance in a young child. Approximately 40% of children who experience one febrile convulsion will have a time in their live when it will reappear. (“Febrile Seizures Fact Sheet | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke”, 2020).

Febrile seizures are relatively short convulsions that do not cause any long-term damage. There is subsequently no evidence that concludes short febrile seizures can cause brain damage. Research conducted through large studies indicated that even children with lengthy febrile seizures have been shown to improve completely, have typical school success and perform well on intellectual tests. (“Febrile Seizures Fact Sheet | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke”, 2020).

Assogba et al., (2015), and colleagues found through studies conducted on children aged 1-5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa that in hot countries, seizures are common, but the frequency of febrile seizures, which have a worse outcome, may be greater than Western populated areas. In addition, clinical studies have described that most children with simple febrile seizures have normal development and intelligence. Yet, some children with complicated febrile seizures residing in tropical areas are in danger for long-term neurodevelopmental and cognitive impairment.

There are many risks and benefits associated with febrile seizures. First febrile seizures are not cause any long term damage. Laino et al., (2018), found most FS bouts are short-lived and self-terminating and do not require long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Some risk associated with FS according to Laino et al., (2018), are if the seizure is long-lasting, a difficult FS occurs, lingering neurological findings are existing, a serious infection is assumed, the source of infection is not clearly determined, the child’s age is less than 18 months, there is a risk of seizure recurrence, and the parents or caregivers are not able to provide regular monitoring soon after the FS.

References

Assogba, K., Balaka, B., Touglo, F. A., Apetsè, K. M., & Kombaté, D. (2015). Febrile seizures in one-five aged infants in tropical practice: Frequency, etiology and outcome of hospitalization. Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences, 10(1), 9–12. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.4103/1817-1745.154315

Febrile Seizures Fact Sheet | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2020). Retrieved 26 March 2020, from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/patient-caregiver-education/fact-sheets/febrile-seizures-fact-sheet#3111_2

Laino, D., Mencaroni, E., & Esposito, S. (2018). Management of Pediatric Febrile Seizures. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(10), 2232. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102232

STUDENT TWO:

There are many types of seizures that can affect children and adolescents. The type of seizure depends on the location of the electrical activity in the brain, how much of the brain is affected, and what happens during the seizure. In fact, “a seizure occurs when one or more parts of the brain has a burst of abnormal electrical signals that interrupt normal brain signals…this includes high fever, high or low blood sugar, alcohol or drug withdrawal, or a brain concussion” (John’s Hopkins, 2020).

Generalized seizures involve both sides of the brain and typically result in loss of consciousness and fatigue after the seizure. One type of generalized seizure is generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTC). A GTC is also referred to as a grand mal seizure and has 5 distinct phases; however, not everyone with this type of seizure experiences all phases. During a GTC, the child’s body will flex, extend, and tremor. The forth phase involves relaxation of the muscles. The fifth phase, the postictal period, is when the child will experience heightened fatigue. Symptoms following a GTC include problems with vision, speech, headaches, fatigue, or body aches.

Treatment of seizures is intended to control, stop, or reduce the frequency of seizures. Typical treatment involves medications dependent on the type of seizures, age of the child, side effects, cost, and ease of use (John’s Hopkins, 2020). Medications need to be taken on time and as prescribed; failure to do so can result in more or worse seizures. Luckily, some children do not have to take medication for the rest of their life–some children are taken off medicine if they have no seizures for 1 to 2 years (Epilepsy Foundation, 2019).

References

Epilepsy Foundation. (2019). Tonic-clonic seizures. Retrieved from https://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-seizures/tonic-clonic-seizures

John’s Hopkins Medicine. (2020). Seizures and epilepsy in children. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/epilepsy/seizures-and-epilepsy-in-children

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