Diabetes Case Study Jerry Thomas is a 26-year-old type 1

Diabetes Case Study

Jerry Thomas is a 26-year-old type 1 diabetic. He was originally diagnosed at the age of 14 and currently manages his disease with an intensive regimen of insulin injections. Jerry is employed as a schoolteacher and soccer coach. He presents today with a 2-day history of vomiting and diarrhea. He has been closely monitoring his blood glucose and is using regular insulin for high blood glucose levels. He has only been able to tolerate liquids such as Gatorade, but today he is unable to even tolerate that and comes to the clinic for evaluation of possible diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

1. What is type 1 diabetes (DM1)?
2. What causes DM1?
3. What are the risk factors of DM1?
4. What two hormones control DM1?
5. What are the functions of insulin?
6. What are the functions of glucagon?
7. What are the warning signs/symptoms of hyperglycemia?
8. What are the warning signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia?
9. What is a normal range of fasting blood glucose?
10. What is the normal range of a 2-hour glucose tolerance test?
11. Below what level is considered hypoglycemia?
12. Above what level is considered hyperglycemia?
13. What is A1C, and how does it relate to Diabetes?
14. What is Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)?
15. What are the symptoms of DKA?
16. What major electrolyte is difficult to manage with DKA?
17. Why is DKA life-threatening?

Sallie Smith, 42 years of age, is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. During the patient education, the patient asks the nurse, “What should I do if I am sick and can’t eat; should I still take my medicine for diabetes?”

1. What is type 2 diabetes (DM2)?
2. What are the risk factors of DM2?
3. What is hyperosmolar hyperglycemia syndrome (HHS)
4. What are the symptoms of HHS?
5. How does HHS differ from DKA?
6. How do you treat hypoglycemia?
7. What oral medications can you give for hypoglycemia?
8. What subcutaneous medication do you give for hypoglycemia?
9. What IV medication do you give for hypoglycemia?
10. What hormone is increased when you are sick or stressed?
11. How would you answer Sallie Smith’s question in the above situation?
12. What are the long-term effects of uncontrolled diabetes- name five?

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