Logic Model and Program Evaluation

First part (1 page chart style) Logic Model

Need a timeline done. PowerPoint and screenshot of the assignment is attached below. My Health Program is Mental Health in College Students. I will attach the previous assignments to help as well.

Part Two: Program Evaluation

 Please read attachment for that one. If you feel an evaluation can be done please create an outline. If you do not please write a paper explaining why not, no more than 2 pages. 

Chapter 13:
Evaluation:
An Overview

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Chapter 13 Lecture

1

Background Information on Evaluation

Adequate and appropriate evaluation is necessary for any program regardless of size, nature, and duration.

Two critical purposes of program evaluation are

Assessing and improving quality

Determining program effectiveness

Conducting evaluation and research is a major area of responsibility for health education specialists.

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Basic Terminology – 1

Evaluation

The process of determining the value or worth of a health promotion program or any of its components based on predetermined criteria or standards of acceptability identified by stakeholders

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Basic Terminology – 2

Formative Evaluation

Purpose is to improve the overall quality of a program or any of its components before it is too late (i.e., the program concludes)

Attempts to enhance program components before and during implementation

Process Evaluation

Assesses the implementation process in general, and tracks and measures what went well and what went poorly and how these factors contributed to the success or failure of a particular program

Measures the degree to which the program was successfully implemented and generally applies lessons learned in subsequent versions or implementations of the program

Formative and process evaluations are often used interchangeably and have become somewhat synonymous.

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Basic Terminology – 3

Summative Evaluation

Purpose is to assess the effectiveness of the intervention and the extent to which awareness, attitudes, knowledge, behavior, the environment, or health status changed as a result of a particular program

An umbrella term

Impact Evaluation

Focuses on intermediary measures such as behavior change or changes in attitudes, knowledge, and awareness

Outcome Evaluation

Measures the degree to which end points such as diseases or injuries actually decreased

Impact and outcome evaluations together constitute summative evaluation.

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Comparison of Evaluation Terms

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Start of

Implementation

Process

Impact

Outcome

Formative

Summative

Planning

End of

Implementation

Purpose of Evaluation

To determine achievement of objectives related to improved health status

To improve program implementation

To provide accountability to funders, the community, and other stakeholders

To increase community support for initiatives

To contribute to the scientific base for community public health interventions

To inform policy decisions

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(Capwell et al., 2000)

Framework for Program Evaluation – 1

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Framework for Program Evaluation – 2

Step 1 – Engaging Stakeholders

Who are the stakeholders?

Those involved in program operations

Those served or affected (directly or indirectly) by the program

Primary users of the evaluation results

The scope and level of stakeholder involvement will vary with each program being evaluated.

Step 2 – Describing the Program

Sets the frame of reference for all subsequent decisions in the evaluation process

Describes mission, goals, objectives, capacity to affect change, stage of development, and how it fits into the larger community

Logic model can be used

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Framework for Program Evaluation – 3

Step 3 – Focusing the Evaluation Design

Makes sure the interests of stakeholders are addressed

Identifies reason of evaluation, how it will be used, questions to be asked, design of evaluation, and finalizes any agreements about the process

Step 4 – Gathering Credible Evidence

Decides on measurement indicators, sources of evidence, quality and quantity of evidence, and logistics for collecting evidence

Organizes data including specific processes related to coding, filing, and cleaning

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Framework for Program Evaluation – 4

Step 5 – Justifying Conclusions

Comparing the evidence against the standards of acceptability

Judging the worth, merit, or significance of the program

Creating recommendations for actions based on results

Step 6 – Ensuring Use and Sharing Lessons Learned

Use and dissemination of the results

Needs of each group of stakeholders addressed

Four standards of evaluation:

Utility standards

Feasibility standards

Propriety standards

Accuracy standards

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Practical Problems or Barriers in
Evaluation – 1

Planners either fail to build evaluation in the planning process or do so too late.

Adequate resources may not be available to conduct an appropriate evaluation.

Organizational restrictions may prevent hiring consultants and contractors.

Effects are often hard to detect because changes are sometimes small, come slowly, or do not last.

Length of time allotted for the program and its evaluation is not realistic.

Restrictions may limit the collection of data among the priority population.

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Practical Problems or Barriers in
Evaluation – 2

It is difficult to make an association between cause and effect.

It is difficult to evaluate multi-strategy interventions.

Discrepancies between professional standards and actual practice exist with regard to appropriate evaluation design.

Evaluators’ motives to demonstrate success introduce bias.

Stakeholders’ perceptions of the evaluation’s value may vary too drastically.

Intervention strategies are sometimes not delivered as intended or are not culturally specific.

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Evaluation in the Program Planning Stages

Evaluation design must reflect the goals and objectives of the program.

The evaluation must be planned in the early stages of development and be in place before program begins.

Baseline data – those reflecting the initial status or interests of the participants; from a needs assessment

Initial data regarding the program should be analyzed promptly to make any necessary adjustments to the program.

By creating the summative evaluation early in the planning process, planners can ensure that the results are less biased.

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Ethical Considerations

Evaluation or research should never cause mental, emotional, or physical harm to those in the priority population.

Participants should always be informed of the purpose and potential risks and should give consent.

No individual should ever have his or her personal information revealed in any setting or circumstance.

When appropriate, evaluation plans should be approved by institutional review boards (IRBs).

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Who Will Conduct the Evaluation? – 1

Internal Evaluation

An individual trained in evaluation and personally involved with the program conducts the evaluation.

Advantages

More familiar with organization and program history

Knows decision-making style of those in the organization

Present to remind people of results now and in the future

Able to communicate results more frequently and clearly

Less expensive

Disadvantages

Possibility of evaluator bias or conflict of interest

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Who Will Conduct the Evaluation? – 2

External Evaluation

Conducted by someone who is not connected with the program (Evaluation consultant)

Advantages

More objective review and fresh perspective

Can ensure unbiased evaluation outcome

Brings global knowledge of working in a variety of settings

Typically brings more breadth and depth of technical expertise

Disadvantages

More expensive

Can be somewhat isolated, often lacking knowledge of and experience with the program

Evaluator should be credible and objective, have a clear role in evaluation design, and accurately report findings.

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Evaluation Results

Who will receive the results of the evaluation?

Different aspects of the evaluation can be stressed, depending on the group’s particular needs and interests.

Different stakeholders may want different questions answered.

The planning for the evaluation should include a determination of how the results will be used.

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Chapter 12:
Implementation: Strategies and
Associated Concerns

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Chapter 12 Lecture

1

Logic Models – 1

A logic model is a systematic and visual way for planners to share and present their understanding of the relationship among the resources they have to operate a program, the activities they plan to implement, and the outputs and outcomes they hope to achieve (CDC, 2008b; WKKF, 2004).

Can help all stakeholders understand the “big picture” of how planning, implementing, and evaluating all fit together

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Logic Models – 2

Three components of a logic model:

Inputs (resources)

Human resources, partnerships, equipment, supplies, materials, and community resources

Outputs (activities)

Products, services, and infrastructure

Outcomes (results or effects)

Short-term, mid-term, and long-term

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Basic Logic Model

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Defining Implementation

“The act of converting planning, goals, and objectives into action through administrative structure, management activities, policies, procedures, and regulations, and organizational actions of new programs” (Timmreck, 1997, p. 328)

One of the three stages of program diffusion, with the other two being adoption and sustainability (Bartholomew et al., 2011)

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Phases of Program Implementation

Phases are flexible in nature and can be modified to meet the many different situations and circumstances faced by planners.

Phases of implementation:

Adoption of the program

Identifying and prioritizing the tasks to be completed

Establishing a system of management

Putting the plans into action

Ending or sustaining a program

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Phase 1: Adoption of the Program

This phase is a part of the marketing process.

Great care must go into the marketing process to ensure that a relevant product (i.e., the health promotion program) is planned so that those in the priority population will want to participate in it.

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Phase 2: Identifying and Prioritizing the Tasks to Be Completed – 1

Many tasks need to be completed when implementing a program.

Examples: reserving space, ordering equipment, etc.

Tasks need to be identified and prioritized.

Planning timetables and timelines can help with this process.

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Phase 2: Identifying and Prioritizing the Tasks to Be Completed – 2

Types of timetables and timelines include:

Basic timelines

Task development timelines (TDTLs; Anspaugh, Dignan, & Anspaugh, 2000)

Gantt charts

PERT charts

Critical path method (CPM)

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Sample Task Development Timeline

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Sample Gantt Chart

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Phase 3: Establishing a System of Management – 1

Management – “the process of assembling and using sets of resources in a goal-directed manner to accomplish tasks in an organizational setting” (Hitt, Black, & Porter, 2012, p. 483)

Includes human, financial, and technical resources

“The efficient, satisfactory management of a health promotion program is vital to its long-term success” (Anspaugh et al., 2000, p. 124).

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Phase 3: Establishing a System of Management – 2

Good management is needed to ensure that programs are

Effective: meet stated goals and objectives

Efficient: well-organized, cost effective

Managers need technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills.

Human Resources Management (HRM)

Four functions (or PADS):

Planning – defining personnel

Acquisition – hiring personnel

Development – training personnel

Sanction – discipline, rewards, safety

Professional Development

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Phase 3: Establishing a System of Management – 3

Financial Management

“Process of developing and using system to ensure that funds are spent for the purpose for which they have been appropriated” (Klingner
et al., 2010, p. 88)

Accounting, fiscal year, fiscal accountability

Audits – internal and external

Technical Resources Management

All other resources besides human and financial

Equipment, expertise, information, material, partnerships

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Phase 4: Putting Plans into Action – 1

There are three major ways of putting plans into action: by phasing them in, in small segments; and by initiating the total program all at once.

The strategies exist in a hierarchy and it is recommended that all programs go through all three.

Pilot testing – trying the program out with a small group from the priority population to identify any problems

Phasing in – limiting the number of people who are exposed, then gradually increasing the numbers; by offerings, by location, by ability, by number

Total program – all in priority population are exposed at same time

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Putting Plans into Action

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Phase 4: Putting Plans into Action – 2

First Day of Implementation

Also referred to as program launch, program rollout, or program kickoff

Some special planning may be necessary:

Decide on a first day.

Consider launching to coincide with other already occurring event (e.g., weight loss program and New Year’s resolution).

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Phase 4: Putting Plans into Action – 3

Some special planning may be necessary (cont’d)

Kickoff in style.

Create a special event; use celebrities.

Seek news coverage, if appropriate.

Inform appropriate media representatives of your plans.

Make arrangements to meet the media representatives at the designated time and place.

Use press releases, video releases, spokespeople.

Consider a news hook; e.g., day in history.

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Phase 4: Putting Plans into Action – 4

Monitoring Implementation

Program monitoring involves the ongoing collection and analysis of data and other information to determine if the program is operating as planned.

Basic monitoring data and information for a program has the following utilities (USDJ, n.d.):

It provides operating and descriptive data and information.

It provides the basic information for comparing outcomes to the program objectives.

It provides educational information about many aspects of the program.

Monitoring data serve as a preventive maintenance function by tracking indicators of critical elements.

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Phase 5: Ending or Sustaining a Program

Planners should determine how long to run a program.

If the program met its goals and objectives and the priority population has been served to the fullest extent necessary, then the program can be ended.

Sustaining a program is more difficult. Six techniques include:

Working to institutionalize

Seeking feedback

Advocating for the program

Partnering with others

Revisiting and revising the rationale

Establishing a resource development committee

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Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions

The focus of implementation science is to study how interventions, which have been shown to be effective in one setting, can be applied to sustain improvements to population health (Lobb & Colditz, 2013).

Tomioka and Braun (2013) created a four-step fidelity assurance protocol:

Deconstruct the program into its components.

Identify agencies that are ready to replicate the intervention.

Closely monitor the fidelity of the program.

Use the evaluation tools of the program to track progress.

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 1

Safety and Medical Concerns

Most programs are designed to improve health; thus give attention to the safety and medical concerns associated with the program.

Informed consent

Explain nature of program.

Inform participants of risks or dangers and any possible discomfort.

Explain expected benefits.

Inform of alternative programs.

Indicate that they are free to discontinue participation at any time.

Allow participants to ask questions.

Informed consent forms (waiver of liability or release of liability) do not protect planners from being sued.

They just make participants aware of special concerns.

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Example Informed Consent Form

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 2

Safety and Medical Concerns (cont’d)

If the act of participating in the program puts anyone at medical risk (e.g., cardiovascular exercise programs), then these individuals need to obtain medical clearance before participating.

Medical clearance signed by a physician

Steps must be taken to ensure the safety and health of all associated with the program:

Safe program location; appropriate security

Building codes met and facilities free from any hazards

Qualified instructors

Plan in case of emergency

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Checklist of Items to Consider When Developing an Emergency Care Plan

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 3

Ethical Issues

Situations where competing values are at play and judgment must be made on what is the most appropriate course of action

Code of Ethics for the Health Education Profession guides the work of health educators.

Planners should have integrity, and be honest, loyal, and accountable.

The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subject Research has three fundamental ethical principles:

Respect for persons

Beneficence – maximizing benefits; doing good

Justice – fairness

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 4

Legal Concerns

Negligence – failing to act in a prudent (reasonable) manner. Arises from two acts:

Omission – doing nothing when you should

Commission – doing something you should not

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 5

Reducing the Risk of Liability – key to avoiding liability is to reduce risk by planning ahead

Be aware of legal liabilities.

Be aware of professional standards.

Keep knowledge and skills up-to-date.

Use certified instructors.

Use good judgment.

Require informed consent.

Get medical clearance.

Limit work to expertise.

Provide a safe environment.

Purchase insurance.

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 6

Program Registration and Fee Collection

Establish payment procedures and a system of payment

Procedures for Recordkeeping

HIPAA

Records should be kept, but ensure anonymity/confidentiality

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 7

Procedural Manual and/or Participants’ Manual

There may be a need to create a manual for the program to:

Ensure that everyone understands the program and its parameters

Standardize the intervention so it can be replicated and avoid Type III errors

Provide ideas for facilitation

Provide additional background information on the topic

Provide citations for additional resources.

Program Participants with Disabilities

Programs should meet the needs of participants with disabilities.

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Concerns Associated with
Implementation – 8

Training for Facilitators

Program facilitators need to be familiar with the intervention.

Either by participating in the planning of the intervention or through a training session

Dealing with Problems

Planners should anticipate and deal with problems that might arise.

Documenting and Reporting

Keep others informed about the progress of the program for:

accountability

public relations

motivation of present participants

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6

Mental Health in college students

Alexis Heard

Columbus State University

SP 22’ Program Design in Kinesiology

Dr. G. Palevo

February 17, 2022

Mental Health in College Students

Health status

Mental health issues encompass factors that affect cognitive, emotional, and behavioral well-being. Any deviation of mental health status from normal may lead to any of the following mental disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms like fatigue, insomnia, back pain, and headaches. Mental health problems have statistically proven to be highly prevalent among college students. For example, in a survey involving Australian students, higher levels of psychological distress were noted. In another state-wise survey by the American Psychological Association (APA), 95% of college counseling centers directors reported alarming and growing concerns over growing numbers of mental health issues among college students (Auerbach et al., 2016). Anxiety is the topping concern with a prevalence rate of 41.6%, followed by depression at 36. 5%, other mental distresses concerns relationships and accounts for 35.8%. These prevalence’s can be attributed to a busy college schedule, financial issues, and lack of balance between having fun and studying.

College lends itself a host to many new things: independence, freedom, opportunity, and autonomy. The transition from high school to college also takes a hefty toll on contributing to deleterious health consequences to college students (Bruffaerts et al., 2018). For instance, lack of engagement can be a sign of depression, excessive worrying, increased dependence on a substance such as excessive drinking to numb emotions, or a changing relationship with food. In such cases, one no longer pays attention to eating patterns and tends to avoid socializing when there is food or exercise excessively. According to Lee et al. (2022). mental health problems can affect students’ concentration, energy, mental ability, dependability, optimism and hinder performance. Depression, for example, is associated with low-grade point averages, truancy, and dropouts. In the end, roommates, peers, staff, family members may end up suffering consequences of poor relationships, poor work productivity, and profound grief from suicides.

Community description

The program’s scope is on college students across the state and beyond. Global estimates of mental health problems suggest that one in four people globally have experienced or will experience mental health issues in their lifetime (Pedrelli et al., 2015). It is the third leading cause of mortalities among young people. Therefore, the program aims to assess the health needs of all reachable college students locally, state-wise, and even nationally.

Needs Assessment

Based on qualitative needs assessments done through focus groups, projects, scenarios, case study reports, introspection, visual texts, role-play simulation, and direct observations, major health needs of the students were identified. The majorly identified health needs include helping erase suicidal feelings and thoughts, eating disorders, overactivity and poor concentration, obsessive-compulsive disorder, low mood, and depression.

Naturally, a human’s body and mind are not separate; it is therefore not surprising that mental health problems impact the body. For example, depression can cause fatigue, headaches, and digestive problems. The overall effects on the quality of life range from a feeling of distress, lack of control, choice, and autonomy, low confidence, diminished activity, and feeling of hopelessness and demoralization (Sazakli et al.,2021).

Major identified causes of mental health problems among college students include pressure to succeed in academics, uncertainty, financial distress, and increased social media use.

Non-specific combat strategies needed in the schools includes

a) Promotion of healthy eating habits

b) Encouraging physical activity

c) Promotion of healthy sleeping habits

d) Social Media use sensitization campaigns to minimize excessive social media use, inactivity, and visiting unauthorized sites.

Quantitative assessments focus on numbers or quantities and gather the information that yields results that can be quantified. A report by Karyotak et al. (2020) showed that one-third of students screened positive for at least a single in six mental health illnesses. With a prevalence of 27% exhibited over 12 months, the study demonstrated a possible lifetime prevalence of 28.7%. This calls for an array of measures, including the following.

a) Once a month mental health seminar in college institutions in California.

b) Employment of an adequate number of psychiatric mental health practitioners across institutions to balance student: psychiatrist ratio.

c) Install at least two support group meetings for students to guide each other towards shared goal recovery.

d) Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) – CAM includes treatment practices typically not associated with standard care.

e) Self-help plans- self-help plans are severely lacking among college studies in the United States. They may, however, have a hand in helping students implement strategies to promote wellness recovery and identify warning signs.

Community link

The United States government currently offers various programs and services to support people with mental health needs, including students. They include income support, disability services, community support, workforce participation programs, and housing.

In hospitals, the current most common way of treating mental health illnesses and challenges includes psychotherapy, also called talk therapy and counseling (Auerbach et al., 2016).

The proposed program will come in a batch of complementary programs to support existing programs in boosting mental health issues among college students. Salient things the program will include:

1) Enhancing counseling and psychotherapy through maximum stakeholder engagement and online campaigns

2) Technology use in mental health programming-technology is likely to address problems of minimal healthcare-seeking behavior among college students. Through technology-based diagnosis, and well-coordinated psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutics approaches, confidentiality will be enhanced, fewer financial expenses will be incurred, and accessibility will be enhanced since services will happen through simple web-search.

3) Community support and awareness campaigns will also help promote awareness, reduce discrimination and stigma, supporting social inclusion and recovery while preventing mental disorders.

References

Auerbach, R. P., Alonso, J., Axinn, W. G., Cuijpers, P., Ebert, D. D., Green, J. G., … & Bruffaerts, R. (2016). Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization world mental health surveys. Psychological medicine46(14), 2955-2970.

Bruffaerts, R., Mortier, P., Kiekens, G., Auerbach, R. P., Cuijpers, P., Demyttenaere, K., &

Kessler, R. C. (2018). Mental health problems in first-year college students: Prevalence and academic functioning. Journal of affective disorders225, 97-103

Lee, S., Lim, J., Lee, S., Heo, Y., & Jung, D. (2022). Group-tailored feedback on online mental health screening for university students: using cluster analysis. BMC Primary Care23(1), 1-14.

Pedrelli, P., Nyer, M., Yeung, A., Zulauf, C., & Wilens, T. (2015). College students: mental health problems and treatment considerations. Academic psychiatry39(5), 503-511.

Karyotaki, E., Cuijpers, P., Albor, Y., Alonso, J., Auerbach, R. P., Bantjes, J., & Kessler, R. C.

(2020). Sources of stress and their associations with mental disorders among college students: results of `the world health organization world mental health surveys international college student initiative. Frontiers in psychology, 1759.

Sazakli, E., Leotsinidis, M., Bakola, M., Kitsou, K. S., Katsifara, A., Konstantopoulou, A., & Jelastopulu, E. (2021). Prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression in students at a Greek university during COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of public health research10(3).

Theoretical Framework

Alexis Heard

Columbus State University

Program in Design Kinesiology

March 01, 2022

Dr. G. Palevo

Theoretical Framework

The mental health program for college students focuses on promoting social-emotional learning and endurance, and also preventing collective, psychological, and behavioral challenges, such as risk behaviors. As a result, the theoretical framework depicts college mental health as a single major topic, depending on available information on psychological health promotion and management. Social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties are avoided.

The framework is further described in the following sections of the study by addressing the primary domains in connection to psychological health consequences and the various developmental mechanisms. I also include a set of critical goal abilities and behaviors for both students and teachers, as well as a summary of the primary theoretical components addressed.

Interpersonal, emotional, and behavioral challenges refer to a wide range of behaviors that college students can acquire to varying levels, which can be internalizing or externalizing. Depression, criminality, social disengagement, self-harm, anxiety,  drug usage, rule-breaking, and violent behavior are commonly targeted in school programs to reduce emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties.

The Theory of Planned Behavior can be used to forecast a person’s willingness to participate in a given behavior at a particular moment and location. The hypothesis was designed to describe all behaviors over which humans can exercise self restraints (Ajzen & Schmidt, 2020). Behavioral intention is a significant element of this paradigm; motives are impacted by one’s view about the probability that the conduct will produce the anticipated result, as well as one’s subjective assessment of the dangers and advantages of that result.

The Theory of Planned Behavior has been effectively utilized to forecast and describe a variety of mental health-related behaviors and motives amongst students, such as smoking, alcoholism, health-care utilization (Lipson et al., 2019), and substance abuse, among many other things. According to the Theory of Planned Behavior, behavioral success is determined by both motive and potential. The ability to undertake the behavior successfully is contingent not just on a positive purpose, but also on a suitable level of behavioral control.

The Theory of Planned Behavior proposes that measuring one’s mindset regarding the conduct, subjective standards connected with the behavior, and apparent influence over completing it might anticipate one’s motives to execute it (McKenzie et al., 2009)The TPB emphasizes the need of using a multifaceted strategy to understand what influences a person’s purpose to undertake a behavior. If a participant’s desire to pursue psychological assistance is swayed primarily by subjective values that are hostile to PHS, a study’s effort to persuade this individual’s motive to obtain psychological assistance might be disappointed if behavior modification is the only target of treatment.

Interventions can be used on a broad level, involving every student, or at a more focused rate, with students who are at risk of establishing or have already manifested, modest mental health issues. Preventive measures that are available to everyone are thought to be less alienating. Moreover, both general and focused preventative programs exhibit equal impact values, demonstrating that both general and specialized preventive interventions are needed. Systematic studies of general interventions in college students, specifically, found that internalizing psychological health disorders like anxiety, stress, and depression indicators were significantly reduced (Lattie et al., 2019). Research on the efficacy of preventative strategies for externalizing disorders has a lot in common. Considerable reductions in specified behavioral difficulties were found, with impacts extending for one year.

The students who took participated in a short cognitive education session experienced significant reductions in anxiety and tension. In a group of students who performed yoga, levels of stress levels are less, and general mental well-being is higher, as contrasted to a regulated group.

The goals of this study were to look at the psychological health of college students to contribute to a better comprehension of the term and to give a thorough theoretical framework for psychological health management at colleges that consider students’ needs into account.

References

Ajzen, I., & Schmidt, P. (2020). Changing behavior using the theory of planned behavior. The handbook of behavior change, 17-31.

Lattie, E. G., Adkins, E. C., Winquist, N., Stiles-Shields, C., Wafford, Q. E., & Graham, A. K. (2019). Digital mental health interventions for depression, anxiety, and enhancement of psychological well-being among college students: systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(7), e12869.

Lipson, S. K., Lattie, E. G., & Eisenberg, D. (2019). Increased rates of mental health service utilization by US college students: 10-year population-level trends (2007–2017). Psychiatric services, 70(1), 60-63.

McKenzie, J. F., Neiger, B. L., & Thackeray, R. (2009). Planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs: A primer (p. 496). San Francisco, CA: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.

2

Intervention Model

Alexis Heard

Columbus State University

Program in Design Kinesiology

March 21, 2022

Dr. G. Palevo


Health Intervention Model

Mental health is one of the imperative modifiers of concentration and performance among college students. Hence, the use of a health intervention model will be essential in my study as it will provide a blueprint to understand and address the issue of mental health among students. It will also guide the formulation and implementation of selected interventions (Hagger et al., 2020). Therefore, this study will utilize the Health Belief Model. The model will be customized and tailored to be in congruence with the study population and the health behavior in context.

The Health Belief Model will be used in my study as it provides a modality to promote health and mitigate disease-causing behaviors among populations. In addition, this theoretical model will be most appropriate in defining the key factors influential to behaviors affecting mental health in this study population (Hagger et al., 2020). The model will assist in delineating the key factors that affect mental health; such the individual perceived susceptibility to suffering from a mental health issue, perceived severity, perceived barriers to initiating action, exposure to support systems that promote health, and self-confidence in the ability to deal with a mental health issue and not relapse.

In conclusion, the health belief model will be used to design short-term and long-term interventions to promote mental health. This will entail assessing the students at risk, understanding the different risky behaviors associated with mental health, and providing channels to communicate with the students on the mechanisms to promote mental health (Zaidlin et al., 2020). This model can also be used in combination with other models. In so doing, the researcher will ensure the depth and breadth of the study gets achieved.

References

Hagger, M., Cameron, L., Hamilton, K., Hankonen, N., & Lintunen, T. (2020). The handbook of behavior change (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=IfEFEAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=health+belief+model&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiEvvT88eb2AhUzi_0HHVc0CSIQ6AF6BAgDEAI

Zaidlin, G., Lisnyj, K., Dougherty, B., Cook, N., & Papadopoulos, A. (2020). Utilizing the Health Belief Model to move post-secondary students toward flourishing mental health. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1-10. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17439760.2020.1858331?casa_token=UNVy2ByL5XcAAAAA:_G8sXjtFe2dV9P6NzetgP_t-rde-pNooKUEg45FCJS2ZeNKxeNf5UsH6vfr1buYB9ejB7Gcd7ojZEStDrQ

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