unv104 #4

Review the reading strategies on pages 70-73 in the textbook. Apply one of the reading strategies towards one of the peer-reviewed articles you chose in the Topic 1 Brainstorming Worksheet. After reading your article, select a sentence that supports  topic. Format this sentence into a direct quote and include an in-text citation. Then, paraphrase the quote and include an in-text citation. In addition, include a reference citation at the end of your response. 

Here is an example of what your response to this DQ should look like: 

Topic:  Exercise and its effects on obesity

Direct Quote: “Guidelines suggest that there are no added health benefits of high-intensity exercise other than the shorter time frame needed to expend the appropriate amount of energy” (Ross et al., 2015, p. 325).

Paraphrase:  Exercise is beneficial for one’s health regardless of intensity levels (Ross et al., 2015).


Ross, R., Hudson, R., Stotz, P. J., & Miu, L. (2015). Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults. Annals of Internal Medicine162(5), 325-334. doi:10.7326/M14-1189

UNV-104 Topic 2 Resource: Reading and Academic Pre-Writing Strategies

Reviewing your Research Selections for your Expository Essay

How to Evaluate Resources

After locating resources in the library, you must evaluate them for use in the completion of your assignment.
The following are some criteria you should use when evaluating if a resource is appropriate for use:

· Authority: What makes the source you are using scholarly? Is it peer reviewed? What are the author’s credentials and expertise? Who is the publisher?

· Currency: Are you researching a current topic? Do your resources also reflect a current date of publication?

· Objectivity: Is there bias in your resources? Have you identified articles that present both sides of an argument and have good coverage of the topic?

· Accuracy: Is the research or information presented accurate? Are there references cited? Can you verify the references in the bibliography? Is the writing professional and free of errors?

· Relevancy: Is the resource relevant to your assignment? If so, how will is assist you in completing the assignment requirements?

While you may find scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles on the Internet, often publishers require you to pay for access to the full-text content. The GCU library, on the other hand, has over 46,000 full-text journal titles covering every major academic subject. The library contains quality academic content, including scholarly, peer-reviewed resources. Learning to determine where to find the best kind of information source for your research needs will come with time and practice. Starting with the library can reduce the stress of having to evaluate every aspect of your information sources.

You will still need to evaluate the quality and type of resources you find in the library as not all material in the library are scholarly, peer-reviewed resources. For instance, a newspaper article or an article from a popular magazine might not be scholarly, peer-reviewed. As you gain familiarity with the library you can begin to target those specific resources and utilize tools to narrow your results and increase the relevance of what you find to your specific topic.

Reading Strategies

Now that you have found your resources and evaluated them for use in your expository essay, you need to read and review the resources to retrieve the information you need to complete the assignment. To do this requires active reading.
There is a difference between active reading and passive reading, and you need tools that put you into the active reader situation so you become effective and efficient in your reading and comprehending skills (Ellis, 2010).
Three reading tools to help you be an effective and efficient reader are muscle reading, speed-reading, and SQ3Rs reading.

Muscle Reading

There are three main phases to muscle reading, with three steps in each phase. This is one of the most comprehensive reading tools because it allows you to roll up your sleeves and really dig into the reading material.

1. Phase One:
You Read

a) Step one: preview – skim the material quickly to identify main topics.

b) Step two: outline the main topics and any subtopics.

c) Step three: question – create 2-3 questions you need answered from the material.

Phase Two:
You Read

d) Step one: read actively by reading out loud if possible, standing or walking to engage.

e) Step two: underline main topics and definitions, but no more that 10% of your text.

f) Step three: answer – find answers to the questions you wrote in Phase One.

Phase Three:
You Read

g) Step one: recite – reading your notes or underlined terms out loud helps you utilize auditory learning, which assists memory.

h) Step two: review – create a summary.

i) Step three: review again – combine the summary with the question/answers to further solidify your learning. (Ellis, 2011, p. 124)

While this technique requires more time, it provides good summary material to use for weekly review. Weekly reviews help move learning from short-term memory to long-term memory. Muscle reading is especially helpful for core classes where you need to learn and remember the information for recall in your career.

Quick Reading

The technique of speed reading also requires active reading. Begin by looking at the entire page you are about to read. With a pencil or pen, draw a line down the center of the text. If there are columns of reading, draw a line down the center of each column. With the pen in your hand, touch the pen to one word on each side of the line; nouns and verbs are good choices. Move your hand and pen across each line of text touching a word on either side of the line you drew, until you reach the bottom. It will feel odd at first, but keep practicing (Ellis, 2011). This technique allows you to read a large amount of material quickly; though you may not comprehend the information at the same level you did using the muscle reading technique.

Quick reading is a technique best used for material that may not be critical to your career but is helpful for other things. For example, it is a good technique for reading daily newspapers quickly and gleaning the general idea of the article. It is not a good technique for your core classes because you do not comprehend as much and have no summary for review. Thus, most of this information remains in short-term memory. The technique could be helpful for pre-viewing material in your core classes as long as you return to review and create a summary for review.

SQ3R Reading

Another reading tool that includes basic techniques for successful textbook and course material comprehension is called SQ3R (Robinson, 1946).

Step One: Survey the material critically by reading main topics out loud. Also, read summaries or conclusions at the end of the sections or chapters. Try to anticipate what the author will say as a way to help you engage and be an active reader.

Step Two: Turn main headings into questions such as, “When is reading tough?” to “What do I do when my reading is tough?” Write out the questions and seek the answers as you read (the next step).

Step Three: Read with the intention of finding answers to your questions and take notes to create a summary for review.

Step Four: Recall what you read by reviewing your notes. Add details where needed to help you remember content.

Step Five: Review your summary to further your learning and move the information from short-term to long-term memory. It is important to spend more time on recall than on reading.

Paraphrasing Strategies

Paraphrasing the ideas of others is a requirement in academic writing, especially research writing. Paraphrasing is using your own words to restate ideas or information from a source material. Paraphrasing will help you grasp the full meaning of the source material and allow you to integrate the source material to support your own ideas and academic writing.
Paraphrased material is usually shorter and more concise than the original information.
The following are some common guidelines taken from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (2011), which may assist you with learning to paraphrase information gathered from reading materials for use in completing your coursework.

· Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.

· Set the original passage aside and, on a note card, write what you think the passage means in your own words (paraphrase).

· Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later of how you plan to use the information. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.

· Compare your paraphrase with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information.

· Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phrase you copied exactly from the original source.

· Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can cite it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into a paper or discussion question response.

The following is an example shows both the original passage, and the paraphrased one paraphrasing (Purdue OWL, 2011), which includes proper citation, per APA style, of the original source material.

The original passage


Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

Lester, J.D. (1976). Writing Research Papers (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Publishing Clearinghouse.

A legitimate paraphrase:

In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note-taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester, 1976).

Lester, J.D. (1976). Writing Research Papers (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Publishing Clearinghouse.

Annotated Bibliography

After reading through a source, creating an annotated bibliography will help evaluate, understand, and organize the information found. An annotated bibliography is a document that contains notes (annotations) for resources used in research as well as the reference citation for each source. The notes in an annotated bibliography should be paraphrased from the resource and can focus on summarizing, evaluating, or reflecting depending on the project or assignment.

Below is an example of an annotated bibliography:

Brown, O., & Robinson, J. (2012). Resilience in remarried families. South African Journal of Psychology, 42(1), 114-126.

This was a salient research study where the target was to identify and explore the resiliency factors that enable blended families to adjust and adapt. Involved a total of 35 participants: 19 parents and 16 adults. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the biographical information. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the quantitative data; and content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The research found that family hardiness, problem solving, communication, family time and routines showed a positive correlation for both parties. Common themes between the teen and parents such as spirituality, boundaries, communication, flexibility and tolerance also had a strong positive correlation between both. The journal is a peer-reviewed journal. Ottilia Brown is also the author of other academic journal articles such as: “The Coping Orientation and Resources of Teachers Educating Learners with Intellectual Disabilities” and “Resilience in Families Living with a Child Diagnosed with Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder.” Both of the author’s affiliations are with the Department of Psychology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa. The article contains chart and graphs of the research study performed to aid in comprehension of the study.

Fogarty, K. F., Ferrer, M. F., & McCrea S. M., (2006). Couples considering a blended family. University of Florida IFAS Extension, 1(FCS2148), 1-6. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/he/he35800.pdf

The article pertained to couples considering a blended family. Discussed and detailed the life changing steps, family ties, roles that come with a new life, and the roles of the step-parent and the biological parent. Described all the basic information of the change, struggles that may arise, as well as strategies to shift them into a positive direction. At the end of the article, there was a set of questions for the couple to answer, serving as a way to initiate communication on the topics and finding common ground on each other’s beliefs and wants for the new living environment. The document is FCS 2148, one of a series of the Family Youth and Community Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, an Equal Opportunity Institution. The article was revised by Kate Fogarty, PhD., assistant professor, youth development, written by Evelyn Rooks-Weir, former associate professor, Human Development, revised by Millie Ferrer, PhD., associate professor, Human Development, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences. All of the authors have extensive backgrounds in the field.

Gennetian, L. (2005). One or two parents? Half or step siblings? The effect of family structure on young children’s achievement. Journal of Population Economics, 18(3), 415-436. doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0215-0

Discussed the effect of family structure on young children’s achievement. Targeted two potential sources of bias: misclassification of blended families and the omission of within-family and individual time invariant unobserved characteristics. It compared and contrasted the traditional family structure and the expanded blended family. Looking at the research results, the author concluded that living in a blended family or a single mother family has little to no unfavorable impact on a child’s achievement. The research showed how economic circumstances may prove to be more unfavorable than family structure. Lisa Gennetian is also the author of other related academic journal articles. The Journal of Population Economics is a scholarly and peer-reviewed journal. The article also includes test scores in graphs of children ages 5 to 10 years old, from 1986-1994 to aid in the comprehension of the article.


When you think about it, you use reading and paraphrasing strategies all the time. For instance, when reading course materials, it is important to make connections between the meaning of the reading material, your course learning objectives, your personal experience with the topic, and the completion of course assignments. This is the same process you should be doing when evaluating your sources to help you support your thesis statement…if it does not make sense, reread it, or look for another resource that you can connect the information to the arguments you are making.


Ellis, D. (2011). Becoming a master student (13th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Joyce, D. (Ed.). (2013). Information Literacy. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.

Purdue Online Writing. (2011). OWL: Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/01/

Robinson, F. (1946). Effective study. New York, NY: Harper and Bros.

© 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.





Expository Essay: Brainstorming and Beginning Research

Before you begin any writing assignment, it is often necessary to complete several “pre-writing” activities necessary for completing your expository essay including selecting a topic, brainstorming, research strategies, and research. Follow the instructions to complete these pre-writing activities.
Make sure you complete all sections of this worksheet.

Part 1: Select a TopicPick One

Below are lists of essay topics to use for the expository essay please highlight/bold your topic choice so your instructor will know your selection.

1. Three services Veterans need to successfully return to civilian life

2. Three characteristics of good leaders

3. Three ways bullying can negatively impact children

4. Three ways technology can impact communication

5. Three issues found in a large classroom

6. Three services the Christian church can provide the community

Part 2: Brainstorming Strategies

Read: Topic 1 Resource.

Review: “Invention: Finding Your Ideas” section of “The Writing Process” media piece:


Complete: In box 1, use the brainstorming method of “Free Writing”.

Brainstorm Method: Free Writing:

Set a timer for 10 minutes and complete your free write brainstorm activity in this box to show your work.

Children might be bullied by people who are older than them, their fellow children or people who have ever interacted with them. According to me, the children may be bullied in different ways. Sometimes they may be subjected to hard supervised labor, denied food substances or denied their freedom. Sometimes, we have even heard of cyber bullying, which may also affect children. Bullying may lead to detrimental memories that will stick for quite sometimes in the minds of the child, however old the child gets, the memories will remain there for most part of the days. Something that really hurts the children is that the action is never taken against the bullies. The impact may be felt in the academic performance of the children, physical well-being and mental well-being. The effects may remain for years down the line.

Part 3: Research Strategies – Key Words & Phrases

Step 1: Pull keywords that were generated from your brainstorming activity in part 2. These keywords need to pertain to the topic selected from part 1.

Step 2: Combine keywords to come up with Boolean search terms. Boolean Search Possibilities: Boolean search terms utilize AND phrases and is covered on page 15 of the course eBook.

An example table is provided below to demonstrate how you should complete this. Please do not use any part of the example as part of your own table.

Example Tables

Keywords pulled from brainstorming

Boolean: Phrases from Keywords

1. Online Learning

1. Online Learning AND Education

2. Student Success

2. Online Learning AND Student Success

Keywords pulled from brainstorming

Boolean: Phrases with Keywords – Boolean search terms utilize AND phrases. This is covered on page 15 of the course eBook

1. Bullying Children

1. Bullying Children AND Impact

2. Impact Mind

2. Bullying Children AND Impact on Mind

3. Three Ways

3. Three Ways AND Bullying Children

Part 4: Define Sub-topics

State three potential sub-topics you want to write about based on the topic you selected in Part 1. Subtopics are the main ideas you plan to use to explain your chosen topic.

1. Sub-topic 1: Types of Bullying: Highlight different types of bullying like Verbal bullying, Prejudicial Bullying, Sexual bullying, Relational aggression, physical bullying and cyber bullying.

2. Sub-topic 2: Impact of Verbal Bullying on children

3. Subtopic 3: Impact of Physical Bullying on Children

4. Sub-topic 4: Impact of Relational Aggression Bullying

Part 5: Navigating the GCU Online Library

Overview: The GCU Library will be a vital resource for you during your academic career. The Library contains a wealth of resources that will help you find, research, and broaden your understanding on any given topic. Learning to correctly use resources to support your writing is an essential component of your academic success.

Before starting this section, review the short walk-through tutorial on the GCU Library.

Step 1: How to Access the Library

There are a number of ways to access the library’s website; here is one path to reach the Library’s main website:

Please click on the following link: https://library.gcu.edu/

Question 1: On the Library’s website, list three ways in which you can contact the library for assistance if needed. If at any point, you find yourself searching more than 15 minutes with no results: STOP and contact a librarian.

1. Toll Free1.800. 800.9776ext. 6396641Local602.639. 6641

2. visit library.gcu.edu

3. 855-GCU-LOPE 

Step 2: Finding Journal Articles

For this section, you will be searching using LopeSearch. LopeSearch is a search option that allows you to search many databases across many subjects with one search. Follow the instructions below to access and begin searching in LopeSearch.

1. On the Library website, click the link Find Journal Articles.

2. Under the LopeSearch type in your first Boolean Search Phrase. This should include your main topic and one of the subtopics you created in Part 4. Check the box beside Peer Reviewed and click SEARCH

3. Sign in if prompted, using your GCU Username and password.

Question 2: Provide the title of the first journal article that is listed in the results.

Step 3: Article Details

In addition to the actual full text of the article, the databases will provide valuable information about an article. You will see things such as authors, source, subject terms, and abstract. The abstract is a brief summary of the article you found.

1. Click on the title of the first article you found in Step 2.

2. Scroll down this page and find the Article Abstract.

Question 3: Copy and paste the abstract from the article you have found in the space below AND explain how an abstract is valuable to your research process and how it will save you time.

Step 4: Permanent and Persistent Links

Databases are designed as powerful searching tools; unfortunately, this means the website link located at the top of any page in a database is temporary and is based on your search at the time. Should you try to save that link as a bookmark or copy and paste it to use at a later time, it will not work. However, the databases have links that are tied directly to the articles you find. Follow the steps below to find the permalink (persistent, durable link, or document URL) to the article you accessed in Step 2.

1. On the same page where you found the abstract, look to the right for the Tools column.

2. Click on the link that says Permalink.

3. A box will pop up above the article title with a permanent link.

Question 4: Copy and paste the permalink to the article you have found in the space below AND explain why a permalink could be an important item to copy.

Step 5: Using Library Databases to Cite Articles

Another important option under the tool bar is the Cite button. In academic writing, citing your sources is very important. It will tell your reader that the information that you are using is the property of someone else. It will also show your reader exactly where you found this information and how to access this information again. This is a necessary step in avoiding academic dishonesty issues like plagiarism.

Note: Always review the appropriate style guides to make sure the reference from the database citation tool correctly follows the rules for the appropriate citation and style format that you are using. The Library database citation tool may use information from electronic resources that is not yet standardized, so it is important to review the citation information carefully and update as needed to reflect the proper format. Check the appropriate style guide located in the Student Success Center: The Writing Center to ensure your reference is properly formatted. https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/tools/writing-center

1. On the same page where you found the abstract look to the right for the Tools column.

2. Click on the link that says Cite.

3. A box will pop up above the article title with different citation styles.

Question 5: Copy and paste the APA reference you have found from the article in the space below. According to the APA Style Guide, where should you include this information in your essay?

Step 6: Gather Resources

Go to the GCU Library website and start a
search for peer-reviewed journal articles

1. On the Library’s website,


, click on Find Journal Articles.

2. Under the LopeSearch type in your first Boolean Search Phrase. This should include your main topic and one of the subtopics you created in Part 4. Check the box beside Peer Reviewed and click SEARCH

3. Sign in if prompted, using your GCU Username and password.

Complete the table below using the three most relevant peer-reviewed journal articles you found on the topic chosen from part 1.

An example table is provided below to demonstrate how you should complete this portion. Please do not use any part of the example as part of your own table.


Peer-reviewed article 1

Title of Resource: Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning.

Boolean terms/ Keywords Used: Online Learning AND Student Success




The number of adult learners who participate in online learning has rapidly grown in the last two decades due to online learning’s many advantages. In spite of the growth, the high dropout rate in online learning has been of concern to many higher education institutions and organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether persistent learners and dropouts are different in individual characteristics (i.e., age, gender, and educational level), external factors (i.e., family and organizational supports), and internal factors (i.e., satisfaction and relevance as sub-dimensions of motivation). Quantitative data were collected from 147 learners who had dropped out of or finished one of the online courses offered from a large Midwestern university. Dropouts and persistent learners showed statistical differences in perceptions of family and organizational support, and satisfaction and relevance. It was also shown that the theoretical framework, which includes family support, organizational support, satisfaction, and relevance in addition to individual characteristics, is able to predict learners’ decision to drop out or persist. Organizational support and relevance were shown to be particularly predictive. The results imply that lower dropout rates can be achieved if online program developers or instructors find ways to enhance the relevance of the course. It also implies that adult learners need to be supported by their organizations in order for them to finish online courses that they register for. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

APA Reference

Park, J., & Hee Jun, C. (2009). Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 207-217.

Peer-reviewed Article 1


Title of Resource:

Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children & Schools

Boolean terms/ Keywords Used:

Bullying AND School, Types AND Effects Characteristics



This link is important since it directs me back to the content that I will be using for this research


Bullying represents a significant problem in U.S. schools, affecting approximately one in three children. The authors discuss the dynamics, types, characteristics, and consequences of school bullying. Risk factors for engaging in bullying, being bullied, and becoming both a bully and a victim are discussed. Research indicates that bullying has serious long-term negative effects on bullies, victims, and victims who turn to bullying as a coping strategy. Longitudinal relationships between childhood bullying and victimization and adult mental health outcomes such as anxiety, depression, substance use, and conduct disorders are outlined. Prevention programs, and their relative efficacy from empirical evaluations, are also presented. Finally, implications for school-based prevention services are provided.

This abstract is important to me because it gives me an overview of the types and effects of bullying that are expected.

APA Reference

Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. H. (2005). Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children & Schools, 27(2), 101-110.

Peer-reviewed Article 2

Title of Resource:

Coping strategies for child bully-victims

Boolean terms/ Keywords Used:

Coping AND strategies, Bullying AND Child- Bully



This link is important to me because it directs me back to the content of the article


Bullying affects most children in some way, as victims, bystanders, or bullies, during childhood. Children exposed to bullying may present with physical as well as psychological symptoms, and experience negative effects lasting into adulthood. This article provides information regarding bullying screening and interventions with pediatric and adolescent patients. Taking into account a child’s developmental stage, age-appropriate tactics are provided to address bullying, victimization, bystanding, and system “rules” that tolerate or foster bullying.

This abstract is important to me because it shades light on the short-term and long-term effects of bullying in schools

APA Reference

Buxton, D., Potter, M. P., & Bostic, J. Q. (2013). Coping strategies for child bully-victims. Psychiatric Annals, 43(3), 101-105.

Peer-reviewed Article 3

Title of Resource:

Bullying: Short-term and long-term effects, and the importance of defiance theory in explanation and prevention.

Boolean terms/ Keywords Used:

Bully and Parent Bonding , fairness and Unacknowledged shame, defiance



This link is important since it directs me back to the content that I will be using for this research


Bullying is often followed by short-term and long-term undesirable psychosocial consequences. Both victims and perpetrators of bullying tend to have high numbers of physical and psychological symptoms. In order to prevent bullying and its aversive results, it is important to formulate and test theories of bullying. This article investigates the usefulness of defiance theory in the explanation of the bullying of siblings in families and peers in schools. Questionnaires were completed by 182 children aged 11 to 12 in ten primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus. We followed a vignette-based methodology to investigate children’s defiant behavior. Children were given a hypothetical scenario—in which the perpetrator is sanctioned by the parents—and were then asked questions that aimed to investigate defiant or compliant reactions to the sanctions imposed. The type of child in the vignette was experimentally manipulated so that children could make inferences regarding his/her intentionality of wrongdoing. The results indicate that defiance theory is useful in explaining bullying behavior. The main implication from our research is that defiance theory can assist teachers and practitioners in implementing whole-school restorative justice approaches to reduce bullying in schools.

This abstract is important to me because it gives me an overview of the types and effects of bullying that are expected.

APA Reference

Ttofi, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Bullying: Short-term and long-term effects, and the importance of defiance theory in explanation and prevention. Victims and offenders, 3(2-3), 289-312.

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