Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?

1)Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?

A) empirical questions

B) public knowledge

C) mathematical equations

D) systematic empiricism

2) A set of beliefs can be said to be pseudoscientific if it lacks one or more of the three features of science and _____.

A) its adherents claim or imply that it is scientific

B) it has been discredited by scientific research

C) it seems “crazy”

D) it refers to phenomena that cannot be directly observed

3) Research questions in psychology can come from which of the following?

A) previous research

B) informal observations

C) practical problems to be solved

D) all of the above

4) Which of the following is a categorical variable?

A) eye color


C) number of lifetime sexual partners

D) shoe size

5) A research methods student conducts a study on the relationship between people’s level of extroversion and the number of close friends they have. She computes Pearson’s r, which comes out to be – 1.70. Which of the following is most clearly true?

A) The relationship between the two variables is weak.

B) More extroverted people have fewer friends.

C) She ought to use a bar graph to display her results.

D) She made an error in computing Pearson’s r.

6) When you want to show that Variable X has a direct effect on Variable Y, what is the best kind of study to conduct?

A) a non experimental study

B) an experiment

C) an observational study

D) a survey

7) The relationship between people’s heights and weights is positive.



8)In a negative relationship, higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on another variable.



9) Pearson’s r cannot be negative.



10) In Milgram’s famous study, who was the confederate?

A)  the person being shocked

B) the experimenter

C)the person doing the shocking

D)none of the above

11) Which of the following occurred in the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study?

A)Research participants were told they had syphilis even though they did not to see how they would react.

B)Research participants were denied treatment for their syphilis.

C)Research participants were injected with syphilis bacteria.

D)Research participants were give experimental treatments for syphilis.

12) Research on the effectiveness of normal educational activities would generally be categorized as which of the following?


B)minimal risk

C)at risk

D)none of the above

13) Measuring characteristics of potential participants to identify those who may be at risk of harm in the study is called _____.



C)informed consent

D)risk reduction

14) The difference between phenomena and theories is essentially the same as the difference between which of the following?

A)observations and models

B)correlational studies and experiments

C)significant and non significant results

D)models and hypotheses

15) How does a framework differ from a theory?

A)A framework is usually more specific than a theory.

B)A framework is usually more general than a theory.

C)A framework cannot be tested but a theory can.

D)A framework can be tested but a theory cannot.

16) For every _____ there are many plausible _____.

A)fact; phenomena

B)theory; researchers

C)phenomenon; theories

D)researcher; variables

17) As a general rule, every phenomenon has which of the following?

A)no real explanation

B)one clear explanation

C)many plausible explanations

D)one discoverer

18) Theories in evolutionary psychology tend to take which approach?





19) A theory that explains a behavior primarily in terms of why it happens is which of the following?

A)a mechanistic theory

B)a typology

C)a functional theory

D)a hypothesis

20) The general approach that scientists use to create and test theories is called which of the following?

A)the functional-mechanistic method

B)the theory-model-phenomenon approach

C) the quasi-logical hypothesis

D) the hypothetico-deductive method

21)What is the first thing that you should do in constructing a new theory?

A)Create a set of mathematical equations that might account for the phenomena of interest.

B)Understand the phenomena of interest in detail, along with any existing theories of them.

C)Conduct at least four to six new empirical studies.

D)Decide which type of theory you want to construct.

22) Measurement is best defined as which of the following?

A)directly comparing one individual to a standard reference individual

B)the assignment of scores to individuals so the scores represent some characteristic of the individuals

C)the use of an established measuring instrument such as a ruler or scale to describe an individual

D)an objective method of counting individuals

23)Which of the following is the best example of a construct?


B)number of siblings


D)annual income

24)What is it called when a researcher measures the same construct in different ways?

A)multiple measurement

B)exploratory research

C)inconsistent assessment

D)converging operations

25)There is a single best conceptual definition of every psychological construct.



26)There is a single best way to measure every psychological construct.



27)Face validity is the extent to which a psychological measure appears to measure the construct of interest.



28)A Cronbach’s alpha of .90 would indicate good internal consistency.



29) A psychological measure is valid to the extent that the scores it produces are consistent over time.



30) Psychological constructs can be observed directly by looking or listening.



31)What are the two defining features of an experiment?

A)control of extraneous variables; statistical analysis of the results

B)statistical analysis of the results; a comparison of two groups

C)a comparison of two groups; manipulation of an independent variable

D)manipulation of an independent variable; control of extraneous variables

32) Why are confounding variables bad?

A)They provide an alternative explanation for any observed difference between conditions.

B)They reduce internal validity.

C)They make it difficult to tell if the independent variable was responsible for the effect on the dependent variable.

D)all of the above

33)Why do researchers randomly assign participants to conditions?

A)to control extraneous variables

B)to ensure that they find a strong statistical relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable

C)to discover whether there is a placebo effect

D)to avoid fatigue effects

34) Imagine that you are a participant in an experiment on the effects of morning exercise on mathematics performance. If this study uses a within-subjects design, which of the following would you do?

A)One day you take a math test after having exercised in the morning; another day you take a math test after not having exercised in the morning.

B)Either you exercise in the morning and then take a math test or you do not exercise in the morning and then take a math test.c. You eat a healthy breakfast consisting of

C)You eat a healthy breakfast consisting of milk, juice, toast, and eggs.

D)You take a math test and then tell the researcher whether or not you exercised that morning.

35) Imagine an experiment with one independent variable: noise level (quiet vs. noisy). If the researcher is using a between-subjects design and wants to have 20 participants per condition, how many participants will he need all together?





36) What is the main advantage of conducting an experiment using a within-subjects design rather than a between-subjects design?

A)A within-subjects design eliminates the need for pilot testing.

B)A within-subjects design controls more extraneous variables.

C)A within-subjects design does not require manipulation of an independent variable.

D)A within-subjects design prevents carryover effects.

37)A researcher is conducting a study in which the dependent variable is mental concentration. If it is a within-subjects design with lots of different conditions, then which of the following is most likely to be a problem for the researcher?

A)practice effect

B)fatigue effect

C)context effect

D)floor effect

38) Experimenters manipulate independent variables and control extraneous variables.



39)In a between-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in only one condition.



40) In a within-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in more than one condition.



41)What is the defining feature of nonexperimental research?

A)It is about personality and individual differences.

B)It lacks the manipulation of an independent variable, random assignment, or both.

C)It involves only one variable.

D)It has high external validity.

42)Which of the following is a reason to conduct nonexperimental research?

A)The researcher is interested in thinking.

B)The researcher wants to maximize the internal validity of the study.

C)The researcher wants to avoid carryover effects.

D)It would be unethical to manipulate the independent variable.

43)Which of the following is a type of nonexperimental research?

A)qualitative studies

B)correlational studies


D)all of the above

44)Which of the following is the defining feature of correlational research?

A)An independent variable is manipulated while extraneous variables are controlled.

B)One variable is measured and described.

C)Research participants are interviewed in depth about their experiences.

D)Two variables are measured and the relationship between them is assessed.

45)Coding of participant behaviors is generally an important part of which of the following?

A)archival data collection

B)sport psychology

C)quasi-experimental research

D)naturalistic observation

46)Qualitative research is meant to do which of the following?

A)generate novel research questions

B)explore people’s “lived experience”

C)address broad questions

D)all of the above

47)Which of the following is a common data collection method in qualitative research?

A)administering questionnaires with rating scale responses

B)taking multiple physiological measures

C)using computer simulations

D)giving unstructured interviews

48) Data analysis in qualitative research is most likely to include which of the following?

A)means and standard deviations

B)inferential statistics

C)unfalsifiable theories

D)detailed examples of participant responses

49)What are the two main characteristics of survey research?

A)large random samples and self-report measures

B)self-report measures and face-to-face interviews

C)face-to-face interviews and statistical analysis

D)statistical analysis and large random samples

50) “Is there anything else you would like to tell us about?” is an example of an open-ended item.



51) Closed-ended items provide a set of response options for respondents to choose from.



52) A researcher who stands in a shopping mall and approaches anyone who looks to him like they would complete a survey is using random sampling.



53) Researchers are most likely to use open-ended items under which of the following conditions?

A)They have a specific construct that they want to measure.

B)They do not have preconceived ideas about how people will respond.

C)They want their data to be quick and easy to analyze.

D)They are conducting their survey over the Internet.

54) Survey research tends to use which of the following?

A)nonrepresentative sampling

B)convenience sampling

C)nonprobability sampling

D)probability sampling

55)What is the best way to address the problem of nonresponse bias?

A)ignore the nonresponders when analyzing the data

B)force everyone to respond

C)do everything possible to maximize response rates

D)write unbiased questionnaire items

56)What are the two main functions of the introduction to a survey questionnaire?

A)to encourage participation and establish informed consent

B)to establish the legitimacy of the survey and put respondents at ease

C)to inform the respondents of their rights and protect the researcher from lawsuits

D)to hide the true purpose of the survey and to establish rapport with respondents

57) High-level APA style consists of rules about grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.



58)An APA-style abstract is usually about two pages long.



59) Which of the following presents the major sections of an APA style empirical research report in the correct order?

A)Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion

B)Method, Results, Discussion, Abstract

C)Abstract, Discussion, Method, Results

D)Method, Introduction, Discussion, Results

60)The two broad themes of high-level APA style writing are that it is _____ and _____.

A)technical; thought provoking

B)creative; engaging

C)formal; straightforward

D)interesting; controversial

61)Which of the following is an example of a low-level rule of APA style?

A)Avoid personally insulting other researchers.

B)Use number words for numbers lower than 10.

C)An empirical research report should start with a title page.

D)Write in a simple and clear manner.

62) The title of an APA style research report should generally be which of the following?A)typed in all capital letters

B)cute and attention grabbing

C)highly technical

D)no more than 12 words long

63) The literature review of an APA style introduction section should do which of the following?

A)cite and discuss the three most important studies on the current topic

B)provide an exhaustive list of all research conducted on the current topic

C)make an argument for why the current research question is worth addressing

D)discuss only new research that has been published in the past five years

64) Below you will find names of various research methods and examples of research studies.  Identify which method best describes each of the research study examples.

A clinical psychologist collects considerable information concerning each patient that she sees, including information concerning their childhood (family and school experiences), job and career, romantic relationships, and so on.  Her goal is to put together a comprehensive picture of each patient.

A researcher is interested in whether there are sex differences in grades in the Introduction to Psychology course.  She compares the grades of the female students to those of the male students in the course.

A psychology professor wants to determine whether showing videotapes as an adjunct to his lecture improves students’ performance.  He randomly creates two groups of student: those in one group watch videotapes that illustrate the material in the lecture, while those in the other just attend the lectures (no tapes).  He then compares their grades on the exam.

Every term, the university asks students to complete a questionnaire evaluating the course they are taking and the professor who teaches it.  The information is used to provide feedback to the department and to the professors concerning both course content and teaching methods.

The relation between college students’ final exam grades adn the number of hours they spent studying for the exam is examined.

A team of developmental psychologists, interested in the phenomenon of bullying, spends several weeks observing children at recess and lunch break in their playgroup.

1.Naturalistic Observation

2.Survey Research


4.Case Study


Correlational Research


65) Situation: A researcher is interested in whether taking vitamin C has an effect on the number of colds people get.

Questions to Answer:

1.  If she wants to determine whether taking vitamin C actually reduces the number of colds people get, what type of research procedure should she use?

2.  What procedures would she follow in setting up the study? (hint: what are the components of scientific research?)

3.  What could she select for independent and dependent variables?

4.  Do you think a control group would be important?  Why? What kind of condition could she use with a control group?

66) Traumatic Brain Injury Linked to Criminal Behavior in Youth: Young offenders are more likely to have suffered a traumatic brain injury compared with the rest of society, according to new research. A study of 197 young male offenders found about half of them reported having had a childhood neurological injury—three times higher than in non-offenders. Multiple head injuries were linked with carrying out more violent crimes, according to research published in the journal Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. The researchers say that while a brain injury alone is unlikely to increase a child’s chances of engaging in crime, it appeared to play a role in children who were already at risk of committing offenses. (Time, 11/11/10)

1.  Is the study above: CORRELATIONAL or EXPERIMENTAL?

2a.  If the study is correlational, is the correlation: POSITIVE or NEGATIVE?

2b.  If the study is experimental, the independent variable is ___________ and the dependent variable is _________________.

3.  Can the authors of the study claim that traumatic brain injuries cause people to commit violent crimes?  Why or why not?

67) Meditation May Change Brain Structure: Meditation causes structural changes in the brain associated with memory, empathy, and stress, according to new research. Researchers, whose findings are reported in the journal Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, examined MRI scans of participants over a period of 8 weeks. Daily meditation sessions of 30 minutes produced measurable changes in subjects with no previous meditation history. The anxiety and stress region of the brain, the amygdala, produced less gray matter. In a non-meditating control group, these positive changes did not take place. (The New York Times, 1/28/11)

1.  Is the study above: CORRELATIONAL or EXPERIMENTAL?

2a.  If the study is correlational, is the correlation: POSITIVE or NEGATIVE?

2b.  If the study is experimental, the independent dependent variable is ___________ and the dependent variable is ______________.

3. Can the authors of the study claim that meditation caused the observed change in brain structure?  Why or why not? (be specific)



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