Choose one topic below
1. How did the Enlightenment emerge and what were the major currents of Enlightenment thought? Compare the ideas of two Enlightenment thinkers. What do they share in common? In what ways did they challenge the ideas of the age and how do they make their arguments?
2. What were the main differences between the French and American revolutions? How can we explain the different paths they took?
3. The Industrial Revolution changed how people lived and worked around the world. How did industrialization transform the economic, cultural, and social lives of Europeans over the course of the 18thand 19th centuries? Were all of these changes positive? If not, why?
4. Focusing on two countries, explore how nationalism and socialism shaped European politics during the nineteenth century.
5. What were the forces behind European colonialism? Choose two colonial powers and compare how their experiences with colonialism differed. What might explain the dramatic differences say between the German and British, or French and Belgian colonial regimes?